ZDF - Verschwörung gegen die Freiheit (1of2) - 27.5.2014
Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i the Crimean Peninsulawhich Russia annexed in Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42 million,  making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i Eastern Orthodoxy.
The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32, BC. During the Middle Agesthe area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity.
Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including the Polish—Lithuanian CommonwealthAustria-Hungarythe Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was eventually split between Poland and the Russian Empireand finally merged fully into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
InUkraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses.
Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state ;  it formed a limited military partnership with Russia and other CIS countries while also establishing a partnership with NATO in Inafter the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which later escalated into the Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government.
These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in Marchand the War in Donbass in April Ukraine is a developing country and ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers : legislativeexecutive and judicial branches. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland",  while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country".
Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites 43,—45, BC which include a mammoth bone dwelling. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32, BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. The Goths stayed in the area, but came under the sway Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i the Huns from the s AD.
At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, and the Khazars took over much of the land. In the fifth and sixth centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of what is now Ukraine.
Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching almost to the Ilmen lakes, led to the emergence of the Ilmen SlavsKrivichsand Radimichsthe groups ancestral to the Russians. After an Avar raid in and the collapse of the Antes Union, most of these peoples survived as separate tribes until the beginning Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i the second millennium. Kievan Rus' included the central, western and northern part of modern Ukraine, Belarusfar eastern strip of Poland and the western part of present-day Russia.
According to the Primary Chronicle the Rus' elite Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia. The Varangians later assimilated into the Slavic population and became part of the first Rus' dynasty, the Rurik Dynasty. During the reign of his son, Yaroslav the Wise —Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power. After a final resurgence under the rule of Vladimir II Monomakh — and his son Mstislav —Kievan Rus' finally disintegrated into separate principalities following Mstislav's death.
The 13th-century Mongol invasion Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i Kievan Rus'. Kiev was totally destroyed in Danylo was crowned by the papal archbishop in Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i as the first King of all Rus'. Under Danylo's reign, the Kingdom of Galicia—Volhynia was one of the most powerful states in east central Europe.
Meanwhile, the heartland of Rus', including Kiev, became the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, ruled by Gediminas and his successors, after the Battle on the Irpen' River.
Following the Union of Krewo Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i, a dynastic union between Poland and Lithuania, much of what became northern Ukraine was ruled by the increasingly Slavicised local Lithuanian nobles as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
By the so-called Galicia—Volhynia Wars ended. Polish colonisers of depopulated lands in northern and central Ukraine founded or re-founded many towns.
In the Union of Lublin established the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, and much Ukrainian territory was transferred from Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i Poland, becoming Polish territory de jure.
Under the demographic, cultural and political pressure of Polonisationwhich began in the late 14th century, many landed gentry of Polish Ruthenia another name for the land of Rus converted to Catholicism and became indistinguishable from the Polish nobility.
The Cossacks Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i not shy from taking up arms against those they perceived as enemies, including the Polish state and its local representatives.
Formed from Golden Horde territory conquered after the Mongol invasion the Crimean Khanate was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century; in it even captured and devastated Moscow.
From the beginning of the Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i century until the end of the 17th century, Crimean Tatar slave raiding bands  exported about two million slaves from Russia and Ukraine. The last remnant of the Crimean Khanate was finally conquered by the Russian Empire in The Cossacks sought representation in Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i Polish Sejmrecognition of Orthodox traditions, and the gradual expansion of the Cossack Registry. These were rejected by the Polish nobility, who dominated the Sejm.
Khmelnytskydeserted by his Tatar allies, suffered a crushing defeat at Berestechko inand turned to the Russian tsar for help. InKhmelnytsky signed the Treaty of Pereyaslavforming a military and political alliance with Russia that acknowledged loyalty to the Russian tsar.
In — came " The Ruin ", a devastating year war amongst Russia, Poland, Turks and Cossacks for control of Ukraine, which occurred at about the same time as the Deluge of Poland. The wars escalated in intensity with hundreds of thousands of deaths. Defeat came in as the " Eternal Peace " between Russia and Poland divided the Ukrainian lands between them.
Eventually Peter recognized that to consolidate and modernize Russia's political and economic power it was necessary to do away with the hetmanate and Ukrainian and Cossack aspirations to autonomy.
Mazepa died in exile after fleeing from the Battle of Poltavawhere the Swedes and their Cossack allies suffered a catastrophic defeat.
The Constitution limited the executive authority of the hetman, and established a democratically elected Cossack parliament called the General Council. Pylyp Orlyk's Constitution was unique for its historic period, and was one of the first state constitutions in Europe. The hetmanate was abolished in ; the Zaporizhska Sich abolished inas Russia centralised control over its lands. As part of the partitioning of Poland inand Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i, the Ukrainian lands west of the Dnieper were divided between Russia and Austria.
From toexpansion into the northern Black Sea littoral and the eastern Danube valley was a cornerstone of Russian foreign policy. Lithuanians and Poles controlled vast estates in Ukraine, and were a law unto themselves. Judicial rulings from Cracow were routinely flouted, while peasants were heavily taxed and practically tied to the land as serfs. Occasionally the landowners battled each other using armies of Ukrainian peasants.
The Poles and Lithuanians were Roman Catholics and tried with some success to convert the Orthodox lesser nobility. Inthey set up the "Greek-Catholic" or Uniate Church ; it dominates western Ukraine Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i this Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i.
Religious differentiation left the Ukrainian Orthodox peasants leaderless, as they were reluctant to follow the Ukrainian nobles. Cossacks led an uprising, called Koliivshchynastarting in the Ukrainian borderlands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth in Ethnicity was one root cause of this revolt, which included Ukrainian violence that killed tens of thousands of Poles and Jews.
Religious warfare also broke out among Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i groups. Increasing conflict between Uniate and Orthodox parishes along the newly reinforced Polish-Russian border on the Dnieper River in the time of Catherine II set the stage for the uprising. As Uniate religious practices had become more Latinized, Orthodoxy in this region drew even Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i into dependence on the Russian Orthodox Church. Confessional tensions also reflected opposing Polish and Russian political allegiances.
However, within the Empire, Ukrainians rose to the highest Russian state and church offices. In the 19th century, Ukraine was a rural area largely ignored by Russia and Austria. With growing urbanization and modernization, and a cultural trend toward romantic nationalisma Ukrainian intelligentsia committed to national rebirth and social justice emerged. The serf-turned-national-poet Taras Shevchenko — and the political theorist Mykhailo Drahomanov — led the growing nationalist movement.
After the Russo-Turkish War —Catherine the Great and her immediate successors encouraged German immigration into Ukraine and especially into Crimeato thin the previously dominant Turk population and encourage agriculture. Beginning in the 19th century, there was migration from Ukraine to distant areas of the Russian Empire.
According to the census, there wereethnic Ukrainians in Siberia andin Central Asia. Nationalist and socialist parties developed in the late 19th century. Austrian Galiciaunder the relatively lenient rule of the Habsburgsbecame the centre of the nationalist movement. Those suspected of Russophile sentiments in Austria were treated harshly. World War I destroyed both empires.
The Russian Revolution of led to the founding of the Soviet Union under the Bolsheviksand subsequent civil war in Russia. A Ukrainian national movement for self-determination re-emerged, with heavy Communist and Socialist influence. Several Ukrainian states briefly emerged: the internationally recognized Ukrainian People's Republic UNRthe predecessor of modern Ukraine, was declared on 23 June proclaimed at first as a part of the Russian Republic; after the Bolshevik Revolutionthe Ukrainian People's Republic proclaimed its independence on 25 Januarythe Hetmanatethe Directorate and the pro-Bolshevik Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic or Soviet Ukraine successively established territories in the former Russian Empire; while the West Ukrainian People's Republic Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i the Hutsul Republic emerged briefly in the Ukrainian lands of former Austro-Hungarian territory.
Sophia Square in Kiev. With establishment of the Soviet power, Ukraine lost half of its territory, while Moldavian autonomy was established on the left bank of the Dniester River. The war in Ukraine continued for another two years; byhowever, most of Ukraine had been taken over by the Soviet Union, while Galicia and Volhynia mostly today's West Ukraine were incorporated into the Second Polish Republic.
Modern-day Bukovina was annexed by Romania and Carpathian Ruthenia was admitted to the Czechoslovak Republic as an autonomy. A powerful underground Ukrainian nationalist movement arose in eastern Poland in the s and s, which was formed by Ukrainian veterans of the Ukrainian-Soviet war including Yevhen KonovaletsAndriy Melnykand Yuriy Tyutyunyk and was transformed into the Ukrainian Military Organization and later the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists OUN.
The movement attracted a militant following among students. Hostilities between Polish state authorities and the popular movement led to a substantial number of fatalities, and the autonomy which had been promised was never implemented. The pre-war Polish government also exercised anti-Ukrainian sentiment ; it restricted rights of people who declared Ukrainian nationality, belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church and inhabited the Eastern Borderlands.
Economic conditions improved in the s, but the region suffered from the Great Depression in the early s. It left over 1. Soviet Ukraine also faced the Russian famine of primarily affecting the Russian Volga - Ural region.
Ukrainisation was part of the Soviet-wide policy Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i Korenisation Sex-Dienste in der Ukraine i indigenisation. Starting from the late s with a centrally planned economyUkraine was involved in Soviet industrialisation and the republic's industrial output quadrupled during the s.
As members of the collective farms were sometimes not allowed to receive any grain until unrealistic quotas were met, millions starved to death in a famine known as the Holodomor or the "Great Famine".