To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Madita Oeming, M. Armed conflicts seem to be inextricably linked to human nature.
In spite of their claim to rationality, though, which supposedly distinguishes them from animals, humans continue trying English and American Representations of Conflicts to solve their problems by taking up arms against each other. Representations of conflicts have found their way into various art forms. The Bible, the written cornerstone of the Christian faith — with forgiveness and peacefulness Sex in der Hölle Bojana central tenets —contains many tales of military engagements, of murder and conquest.
Conflicts do not always imply the use of armed force, though. Reitemeier phil. Users of the free online version are invited to read, download and distribute it. Users may also print a small number for educational or private use. To turn to a piece of philoso- phical writing from antiquity to approach a twentieth-century political event seems absurd. His famous cave allegory in Book VII suddenly reads like a trenchant commentary on Sex in der Hölle Bojana splitting of the American people during the Vietnam era: soldiers experiencing the war first hand versus civilians following it via the media.
Do modern media representations substitute firsthand experience? Finally, how do preconceived media images change the perception of those who actually Sex in der Hölle Bojana to face war? As the subtitle suggests, the essence of this study lies in reconsidering media boundaries, both between media and literature and between media and reality. In so doing, the concept of intermediality will serve as the theoretical framework through which the primary text is to be read and analyzed.
Against this backdrop, the overall Sex in der Hölle Bojana is to demonstrate how the intermedial dimension of Dispatches functions as a deconstructive means within the text.
To get to these results, a brief introduction to the field of intermediality — de- lineating its history 2. Building up on that, the overall intermedial potential of Dispatches will be outlined 3before a close-reading of selected passages brings into focus one particular type of intermediality, consisting Sex in der Hölle Bojana the thematization 4.
Subse- quently, a conclusion will serve as a review section which places the previous find- ings within a broader context and links them back to the opening thought: Does intermediality in Dispatches eventually work towards unifying or distancing the sol- dier on the front and the civilian at home?
In short: If the Sex in der Hölle Bojana voices in the field of interme- diality can agree on one thing, it is the fact that the concept still lacks demarcation. Due to this reason, but also to the limited scope of this paper, the following chap- ter does not endeavor to present an all-encompassing panorama of intermediality1 but rather to offer a glimpse into this complex and still maturing concept.
Heusser 11f; Wolf, Musicalization 2ff. In this long-standing tradition of inter-artistic comparison, the notion of competitiveness, rather than of collaboration, between different media has always played a central role. Only with the ushering of post-modernism did this line begin to blur. The two that have been met with the most universal approval in literary studies, and which will serve as central points of reference throughout this paper, are the oft- quoted texts by Werner Wolf most notably The Musicalization of Fiction and by Irina O.
Rajewsky especially Intermedialität Preuss 17ff. His article3 takes it Sex in der Hölle Bojana the confines of art criticism and is usually considered the birth hour cf. Yet, or rather because of this fact, the questions that have already occupied early thinkers remain pressing to this day: What exactly constitutes the difference between media, can these boundaries be crossed and, if so, how, why, and with what effect?
These are the conundrums that drive the present paper and that unite a plurality of dif- ferent approaches now being practiced under the broad heading of intermediality. In the case of intermediality, however, this means to open a can of worms. While the Latin prefix inter- is quite readily translated into between, things get much more difficult with the second part, -media. In general, the understanding of the word medium ranges from a very narrow notion medium as a 2 In fact, the term goes back to Coleridge and the year cf.
SchröterOosterling 35 as Higgins later acknowledged cf. Sonderband 11, Wien The OED requires almost words4 to explain the etymology, development and countless different usages of medium, demonstrating how eclectic this term alone already is.
Mediality brings in the aspect of materiality which has increasingly been included in recent scholarly debates on media. Within this very general frame, a plethora of different definitions has been put forward, which — as those of medium — Sex in der Hölle Bojana between a wide and a rather nar- row conception.
Other studies investigate the interplay of different media when being combined in one work, such as image and text in a comic book. In this case, references in a work of one medium to a work of another medium are of interest, as, for example, a song referring to a film or Sex in der Hölle Bojana versa.
By contrast, intermediality can also be seen as a more 4 As per August 10th Steps en route to Intermediality. At first sight, the two outlined poles appear to be contradictory; at second sight, however, they are in fact two sides of the same coin that merely operate on different levels.
Whether we consider the artifact itself as intermedial or our culture as a whole, does not matter after all, since the former can Sex in der Hölle Bojana seen as the manifesta- tion of the latter, or the latter as the outcome of the former; a classic chicken-and- egg dilemma. Thus, the crux of the matter lies in the perspective one chooses and the epistemological goals one pursues in dealing with intermediality.
Without a doubt, intermediality has to be understood as a dynamic, not a static, concept that keeps changing with the advancement of technology but also with the respective discipline in which it is being used. However, intermediality was at first received with reserve rather than enthusiasm by the academic audience. In the long run, this can only change, if the skepticism for the unknown is turned into curiosity. As a specific ingre- dient of Sex in der Hölle Bojana, intermediality is precisely not non-literary.
By contrast, it is maybe the only way to come to a full understanding of contemporary literature in its multi-layered resonance of the growing media saturation of our post-modern age.
Not only including the all-important signal word — medium — but also bringing it into relation with first-hand experience of Vietnam, this sentence inevi- tably turns the spotlight on the intricate interplay of war, media, and reality. Once attention is drawn to this matter, the preceding and remaining 50 pages of Dispatches appear in a new light. The more one re- reads, the more one realizes that this one sentence in fact contains the whole book en miniature; and the less one understands how it — the passage and the topic — could receive such dispropor- tionately little attention within the literature on Dispatches.
Reading it as a book about Vietnam, studies largely revolve around war-related topics such as trauma, gender, violence, mythmaking, etc. Van Deusen, Critique Self-consciously media-focused studies Sex in der Hölle Bojana Dispatches are scarce; intermediality-focused approaches are, to my knowledge, non-existent thus far.
In so doing, it is an attempt maybe not Sex in der Hölle Bojana fill but at least to point towards this gap in the existing body of research. Though many secondary sources mention this origin, none of them makes an effort Sex in der Hölle Bojana go into more detail: How does the format interact with the narrative?
Does the presence of a photograph supplement to or distract from the text? In how far does our perception of a four-page article in a magazine — posi- tioned, for example, between a record commercial and the home story of a rock band, as in the November issue of Rolling Stone — generally differ from that of a coherent page hardcover book?
These are distinctly intermedial questions, which could put a new complexion to an understanding of Dispatches, but have remained without reply. Lau, Life Writing 6. Carpenter, College Literature Read by Ray Porter. Blackstone Audio, Though all of these facets are not exactly part of Dispatches the bookthey still can open up a new and enlightening perspective on it. By entering into dialogue with one another, the various versions stress the relevance of the differing me- dium for the same?
Drawing on the three-partite subdivision of inter- mediality, which Irina Rajewsky suggests cf. By contrast, the second form that Ra- jewsky distinguishes, that of media combination Medienkombinationdesignates the phenomenon of one artifact comprising at least two different media. As most conceptions of intermediality, this one is especially dependent on which definition of medium one chooses.
Sticking to a definition that is strongly bound to materiality, Dispatches — mate- rially clearly consisting of just one medium — could hardly be identified as interme- dial in this second sense. Yet, this generic border crossing has not been acknowledged as a crossing of me- dia boundaries. While a considerable amount of importance has been attached to the matter of New Journalism, for example, it Sex in der Hölle Bojana mostly looked at as a new — liter- ary — genre, and discussed with regard to questions of mimesis or subjectivity rather than of merging different media.
Likewise, the ways in which Dispatches dis- misses conventional journalism and literary realism, on the one hand; and struggles to establish itself against canonical war literature, on the other, have hardly ever been understood in terms of media rivalry. In fact, however, the motif of compet- ing print media — most notably in the countless self-referential passages — runs as a constant subtext through Dispatches. To put it in a nutshell: The intermedial potential of Dispatches is almost inex- haustible.
Though well aware of its existence, the paper at hand can, for reasons of space, not exploit this potential to the fullest. Therefore, the above indicated aspects of media com- bination and media transformation will not be examined in any more depth but have to be understood as pointers towards a research niche which certainly merits closer scrutiny.
Instead, the focus of the following text analysis shall be placed on a third type of intermediality: intermedial references Intermediale Bezüge. To be more precise, the focus will be on audio, visual and audio- visual media, which have been given comparatively little weight in the research Sex in der Hölle Bojana on Dispatches: rock music, photography, and film. Identifying these three as mass media may appear Sex in der Hölle Bojana in that this label undermines their status as serious art forms.
Vietnam Goes Intermedia 69 not-to-be underestimated impact on how Dispatches affects us and on the mes- sage s it conveys. To do Sex in der Hölle Bojana, it shall be differentiated, in the first place, between what the work is about — its content— as distinct from how it mediates this content — its form. Put otherwise, the first part of the analysis will be concerned with intermediality IN Dispatches, having a closer look at crucial passages in which different mass media are being thematized 4.
In so doing, the specific media Sex in der Hölle Bojana scrutiny are, as already mentioned, rock music, photography, and film. To what extent do these three media become a topic in Dispatches and with what effect? A seemingly insignificant joke, this early passage already reveals, at a closer look, a few interesting aspects with Sex in der Hölle Bojana to intermediality.
These are, moreover, linked to specific per- sons, which is an idea that keeps recurring with regard to other characters in later chapters.
Sex in der Hölle Bojana interplay of different people is indirectly aligned with the interplay of different media; as if each means of repre- sentation captures one fragment of the whole action. This implies, first of all, the setting apart of the long-haired correspondents from the shaved headed soldiers; and second, the representation of rock music as the anathema to military conformity and to the Vietnam War itself.
In short, even the most inconspicuous reference to mu- sic of which there are countless in Dispatches can have far-reaching implications, which are easily overlooked. In general, the best way to group these various pas- sages is by their function Sex in der Hölle Bojana the overall text. Referring to the latter-mentioned role of rock music as mouthpiece of the anti- war subculture, it can be said that among the manifold functions of thematizing music in Dispatches, one is evidently of political nature.
Through including refer- ences to songs and artists known for their outspokenly critical view on war, Herr15 lends them tacit approval; indirectly agreeing by not disagreeing. When the words of Frank Zappa are being mentioned in the same breath as those of renowned literati as Hemingway or Blake, it lends weight to the former as much as it debunks the latter.