Tibet was NEVER a part of China
Manchuria is an exonym for several large overlapping historical and geographic regions in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, it may refer to. First used in the 17th century by the Japanese, Sex in der Mandschurei remains a common term elsewhere but is deprecated within China, where it is associated Sex in der Mandschurei ethnic chauvinism and Japanese imperialism.
Northeastern China is now predominantly Han Chinese  and is considered the homeland of several groups besides the Manchus, including the Koreans    the Xianbei the ShiweiSex in der Mandschurei the Khitans. The area is also home to many Mongols   and, in Russia, Russians. Manchuria is now most often associated with the three Chinese provinces of HeilongjiangJilinand Liaoning. These districts were acknowledged as Qing Sex in der Mandschurei by the Treaty of Nerchinsk but ceded to the Russian Empire as the Amur Acquisition in the unequal Treaty of Aigun and Convention Sex in der Mandschurei Beijing.
The People's Republic of China indirectly questioned Sex in der Mandschurei legitimacy of these treaties in the s but has more recently signed agreements such as the Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship which affirm the current status quo;  a minor exchange nonetheless occurred in at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers.
Ethnographically, the island was occupied by the Ainu until their forced removal by the Soviet Union after Map of the three provinces of Northeast China . Map of Manchukuo and its rail network, c. The name Manju was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in as a new name for their ethnic group; however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland.
Lee's statement that "The term Manchuria or Man-chou is a modern creation used mainly by westerners and Japanese", with McCormack writing that the term Manchuria is imperialistic in nature and has no "precise meaning" since the Japanese deliberately promoted the use of "Manchuria" as Sex in der Mandschurei geographic name to promote its separation from China Sex in der Mandschurei the time they were setting up their puppet state of Manchukuo.
Garcia noted that usage of the term "Manchuria" is out of favor in "current scholarly practice" and that he had ceased using the term, instead using "the northeast" or referring to specific geographical features. In the 18th-century Europe, the region later known as "Manchuria" was most commonly referred to as "[Chinese] Tartary ".
However, the term Manchuria Mantchouriein French started appearing by the end of the century; French missionaries used it as early as The name Guandong later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the Kwantung Leased Territory on the Liaodong Peninsula.
It is not to be confused with the southern province of Guangdong. The area of Manchuria was then converted into three provinces by the late Qing government in Since then, the phrase "Three Northeast Provinces" was officially used by the Qing government in China to refer to this Sex in der Mandschurei, and the post of Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban was established to take charge of these provinces.
After the revolutionwhich resulted in the collapse of the Manchu-established Qing dynasty, the name of the region where the Manchus originated was known as "the Northeast" in official documents in the newly founded Republic of Chinain addition to the "Three Northeast Provinces".
During the Ming dynasty the area where the Jurchens lived was referred to as Nurgan. Manchuria consists mainly of the northern side of the funnel-shaped North China Cratona large area of tilled and overlaid Precambrian rocks spanning million hectares.
The North China Craton was an independent continent before the Triassic period and is known to have been the northernmost piece of land in the world during the Carboniferous. The Khingan Mountains in the west are a Jurassic  mountain range formed by the collision of the North China Craton with the Siberian Cratonwhich marked the final stage of the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea.
No part of Manchuria was glaciated during the Quaternarybut the surface Sex in der Mandschurei of most of the lower-lying and more fertile parts of Manchuria consists of very deep layers of loesswhich have been formed by wind-borne movement of dust and till particles formed in glaciated parts of the HimalayasKunlun Shan and Tien Shanas well as the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts.
The climate of Manchuria has extreme seasonal contrasts, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in the summer to windy, dry, Arctic cold in the winter. This pattern occurs because the position of Manchuria on the boundary between the great Eurasian continental landmass and the huge Pacific Ocean causes complete monsoonal wind reversal. However, because the winds from Siberia are exceedingly dry, snow falls only on a few days every winter, and it is never heavy.
Manchuria was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including ManchuUlchsHezhenNivkhs and possibly Turkic peoples in northwestern Manchuria. Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the SushenDonghuXianbeiWuhuanMoheKhitan and Jurchens have risen to power in Manchuria.
At various times, Han dynastyCao Wei dynasty, Western Jin dynastyTang dynasty and some other minor kingdoms of China established control in parts of Manchuria and in some cases tributary relations with peoples in the area. Parts of northwestern Manchuria were under control of the Turkic Khaganate.
A number of world renowned linguists, including Dr. Bang-han Kim, Dr. Alexander Vovinand Dr. Later, Koreanic-speakers already Sex in der Mandschurei in northern Korea started to expand further south, replacing or assimilating Japonic-speakers and likely causing the Yayoi migration.
Both had influence Sex in der Mandschurei each other and a later founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families. With the Song dynasty to the south, the Khitan people of Inner Mongolia created the Liao dynasty in the region, which went on to control adjacent parts of Northern China as well.
The Liao dynasty was the first state to control all of Manchuria. In the early 12th century the Tungusic Jurchen people, who were Liao's tributaries, overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin dynastywhich went on to control parts of Northern China and Mongolia after a series of successful military campaigns. During the Yuan dynasty — Manchuria was administered under the Liaoyang province. InNaghachua Mongol official of the Mongolia-based Northern Yuan dynasty in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong, but later surrendered to the Ming dynasty in In order to protect the northern border areas, the Ming decided to "pacify" the Jurchens in order to deal with its problems with Yuan remnants along its northern border.
Starting in the s, a Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain, Nurhaci —started to unify Jurchen tribes of the region. Over the next several decades, the Jurchen took control of most of Manchuria. InNurhaci founded the Later Jin dynasty, later became known as the Qing dynasty. The Qing defeated the Sex in der Mandschurei - Daur federation led by Evenki chief Bombogor and beheaded Bombogor inwith Qing armies massacring and deporting Evenkis and absorbing the survivors into the Banners.
Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", motifs such as the dragon, spirals, and scrolls, agriculture, husbandry, methods of heating, and material goods such as iron cooking pots, silk, and cotton spread among the Amur natives including the UdeghesUlchis Sex in der Mandschurei, and Nanais.
Inafter the Ming dynasty 's capital of Beijing was sacked by the peasant rebels, the Jurchens now called Manchus allied with Ming general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing, overthrowing the short-lived Shun dynasty and establishing Qing dynasty rule — over all of China. The Manchu conquest of China killed over 25 million people. It was also common to use "China" ZhongguoDulimbai gurun to refer to the Qing in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs.
Han Chinese farmers were resettled from north China by the Qing to the area along the Liao Sex in der Mandschurei in order to restore the land to cultivation. Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement on the Manchu and Mongol lands, by Sex in der Mandschurei 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.
The Russian conquest of Sex in der Mandschurei was met with indigenous resistance to colonization by the Russian Cossacks, who crushed the natives. The conquest of Siberia and Manchuria also resulted in the spread of infectious diseases.
Historian John F. Richards wrote: " New diseases weakened and demoralized the indigenous peoples of Siberia. The worst of these was smallpox "because of its swift spread, the high death rates, and the permanent disfigurement of survivors. In the s, smallpox epidemics reduced Yukagir numbers Sex in der Mandschurei an estimated 44 percent. Inat the Treaty of Pekingthe Russians managed Sex in der Mandschurei obtain a further large slice of Manchuria, east of the Ussuri River.
As a result, Manchuria was divided into a Russian half known as " Outer Manchuria ", and a remaining Chinese half known as "Inner Manchuria". In modern literature, "Manchuria" usually refers to Inner Chinese Manchuria. Inner Manchuria also came under strong Russian influence with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. In the Chuang Guandong movement, many Han farmers, mostly from the Shandong peninsula moved there.
ByHarbin, northern Manchuria's largest city, had a population of , includingRussians. Japanese influence extended into Outer Manchuria in the wake of the Russian Revolution ofbut Outer Manchuria had reverted to Soviet control by Manchuria was an important region due to its rich natural resources including coal, fertile soil, and various minerals. Without occupying Manchuria, the Japanese probably could not have carried out their plan for conquest over Southeast Asia or taken the risk to attack Pearl Harbor and the British Empire in It was reported that among Banner people, both Manchu and Chinese Hanjun in Aihun, Heilongjiang in the s, would seldom marry with Han civilians, but they Manchu Sex in der Mandschurei Chinese Bannermen would mostly intermarry with each other.
The Han civilian population was in the process of absorbing and mixing with them when Lattimore wrote his article. Around the time of Sex in der Mandschurei War IZhang Sex in der Mandschurei established himself as a powerful warlord with influence over most of Manchuria. During his rule, the Manchurian economy grew tremendously, backed by immigration of Chinese from other parts of China.
The Japanese assassinated him on 2 Junein what is known as the Huanggutun Incident. Under Japanese control Manchuria was one of the most brutally run regions in the world, with a systematic campaign of terror and intimidation against the local Russian and Chinese populations including arrests, organised riots and other forms of subjugation.
After the atomic bombing of HiroshimaJapan inthe Soviet Union invaded from Soviet Sex in der Mandschurei Manchuria as part of its declaration of war against Japan. The communists won in the Liaoshen Campaign and took complete control over Manchuria. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, Manchuria was then used as a staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Communist Party of Chinawhich Sex in der Mandschurei victorious in Ambiguities in the treaties that ceded Outer Manchuria to Russia led to dispute over the political status of several islands.
This led to armed conflict incalled the Sino-Soviet border conflictresulting in an agreement. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the region of northeastern Asia. For other uses, see Manchuria disambiguation. Further information: Etymology of Manchu. Part of a series on the. Ancient period. Medieval period. Modern period. Main article: History of Manchuria.
Manchuria; its people, resources and recent history. University Press of America. Lexington Books. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. George Allen and Unwin, Ltd. Bloomsbury Press; Reprint edition. Retrieved 27 November Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Volumes 11—12, p.