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The objective of the offensive was to cut off and capture the key Soviet Port of Murmansk through Sexshops in der Region Murmansk from Finnish and Norwegian territory. The operation had three stages, in Operation Reindeer Rentier German forces advanced from Norway to secure the area around Petsamo and its nickel mines. The German—Finnish forces took some ground but Murmansk was neither cut off nor captured and operated as important destination for Allied convoys throughout the war.
Tensions between the new anti-communist republic and the Soviet Union remained high during the early interwar years. Following a number of border skirmishes between Finnish nationalists and the Soviet Union in Kareliathe Treaty of Tartu settled the border of the two countries in Soviet-Finnish relations remained cool, but the two parties signed a year non-aggression pact in In the Nazis came to power in Germany.
The Soviet Union feared an attack by Germany and Sexshops in der Region Murmansk to secure itself against a possible German—Finnish alliance; Finland wanted Sexshops in der Region Murmansk preserve its neutrality at any cost. During negotiations in andthe Soviet Union demanded securities from Finland to allow intervention by the Red Army in case of a German entry into Finland.
After a Finnish rejection, the Soviet Union proposed a land-trade for strategic locations it deemed necessary to defend against a German invasion.
Gustaf Mannerheim the Chairman of Finland's Defence Council and others favoured the proposal, but the Finnish government wanted to preserve its neutrality and the lengthy negotiations failed. On 23 August the Soviet Union and Germany signed the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pactwhich contained a secret protocol dividing Europe into spheres of influence for each country.
Finland, they agreed, would fall into the Soviet sphere. Germany subsequently invaded Poland in September ; the Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland 16 days later. After its defeat in MarchFinland had to make major territorial concessions as part of the resulting Moscow Peace Treaty.
Feeling abandoned by the Western Allies, Finland started to seek help against the threat posed by the Soviet Union. Finland sought inclusion in wider Scandinavian defense co-operation, but both Soviet and German opposition prevented this. A proposed Swedish-Finnish military alliance failed due to Soviet-German pressure.
Deprived of other potential sources of help, Finland started to seek closer ties with Germany to secure its position against the Soviet Union, and both sides cooperated to develop a joint policy against the Soviet Union. Planning for the operation started in earnest in December Erich Buschenhagenchief of staff of Army of Norway AOK Norwegen visited Finland and drew up a plan which would determine Finland's role in the war, which included the first draft of German—Finnish operations against the Soviet Union.
On 8 DecemberHitler issued Directive No. The detailed plan for the operation was created by Nikolaus von Falkenhorstcommander of the Army of Norway and his staff in January On February 18,the chief of staff of the Wehrmacht in Norway, Colonel Erich Buschenhagenarrived in Helsinki, and the following days, he had consultations with representatives of the Finnish Sexshops in der Region Murmansk staff, General Aksel Fredrik Airoand General Erik Heinrichs.
Later, Colonel Buschenhagen visited the region of Kuusamo and eastern Rovaniemias well as Petsamoto reconnoitre the area, his visit ended on 28 February. Operation Silver Fox Sexshops in der Region Murmansk planned as a two-staged pincer movement, in three operations; the first phase was Operation Reindeer Unternehmen Rentier in which the two divisions of Mountain Corps Norwaythe 2nd and 3rd Mountain Divisions under the leadership of Eduard Dietl were to move east from Kirkenes and to deploy in the Finnish held area around Petsamo to secure the nickel mines.
The second phase of Operation Silver Fox was to be a pincer attack against the Soviet port of Murmansk which was ice-free in winter and with Arkhangelsk was likely to be a destination for Sexshops in der Region Murmansk Allied supplies to the USSR. The first prong of the attack was to be a frontal assault against Murmansk by Mountain Corps Norway.
The two divisions were to advance east from Petsamo to take Murmansk. On their way, they were to secure the Rybachy Peninsulasupported by Finnish border units. The second pincer, codenamed Operation Arctic Fox Unternehmen Polarfuchswas to be launched further south to take Sallaceded to the Soviet Union after the Winter War and then to proceed eastwards along the railway to capture Kandalakshacutting the vital Murmansk Railway line which connected Murmansk with Central Russia.
Aerial support for the offensive was to be provided by Luftflotte 5 based in Norway and the Finnish Air Force. The Finnish air force fielded about aircraft of various types at the start of hostilities. By late FebruaryGerman units were moved into Finland; Germany had secured transit rights through neutral Sweden and the German 2nd and 3rd Mountain Divisions were moved into place at Kirkenes, for Operation Reindeer. German units embarked in Stettin and Oslo for Oulufrom where they continued via train to Rovaniemi.
Once there, they joined Finnish forces and marched into position for Sexshops in der Region Murmansk offensive under the guise of border defense exercises. Soviet preparations were meager; although the Soviets anticipated a German invasion with possible Finnish support, Stalin did not expect a German attack along the entire border so early.
The border had been fortified, but the Soviet leadership was taken by surprise. The main adversary of the German—Finnish force was the Soviet Northern Front consisting of the 7th and 14th Armies stationed in the Arctic.
They were commanded by Lieutenant-General Markian Popov. During the first weeks, the Axis had numerical superiority, as the Soviets only hadmen stationed north of Lake Ladoga along the border.
During German-Finnish negotiations, Finland had demanded to remain neutral unless the Soviet Union attacked them first. Germany therefore sought to provoke the Soviet Union into an act of aggression toward Finland. German aircraft employed Finnish air bases, while also launching Operation Rentierwhich resulted in the take-over of Petsamo on the Finnish-Soviet border.
Despite these actions, the Finnish government insisted via diplomatic channels that it was still a neutral Sexshops in der Region Murmansk, but the Soviet leadership already viewed Finland as an ally of Germany. On 22 June, the Murmansk Oblast entered a state of emergency, with a total of 50, mobilized into the army and navy.
Conscripts and volunteers joined the ranks of the newly formed 1st Polar Rifle Divisionwhile sailors from the Sexshops in der Region Murmansk Fleet entered the service of a marine infantry brigade.
Also, a considerable number of civilians were Sexshops in der Region Murmansk in the construction of four lines of fortifications between Zapadnaya Litsa and Kola Bay. Subsequently, the Soviets proceeded to launch a massive air raid on 25 June, bombing all major Finnish cities and industrial centers, including Helsinki, Turku and Lahti. During a night session that same day, the Finnish parliament decided to go to war against the Soviet Union.
Operation Silver Fox could now commence. The first phase of Silver Fox was launched on 22 Juneto coincide with the launch of the general German offensive, Operation Barbarossa.
The two divisions of Mountain Corps Norway moved out from Kirkenes to the east and began deploying in Sexshops in der Region Murmansk Finnish held area around Petsamo. The appearance of a German corps on their border came as a surprise to the Russians. The operation was successful and the nickel mines were secured. Dietl's troops reorganized and prepared for the launch of Platinum Fox. On June 29 Dietl launched his attack together with Finnish border units towards the east.
They were opposed by two Soviet divisions of the 14th Armynamely the 14th and 52nd Rifle Divisions. On the first day, the initial advance of Dietl's forces looked promising. The 2nd Mountain Division was able to secure the neck of Rybachy Peninsula, while the 3rd Mountain Division was able to penetrate the Soviet lines at the Titovka Valleycapturing a bridge over the river. After the element of Sexshops in der Region Murmansk was lost the German offensive got bogged down as they faced increasingly organized Soviet defenses and difficult surroundings.
The rough terrain, the lack of maps and the Arctic weather slowed the Germans down for the entirety of the offensive. Against heavy Soviet resistance, the 2nd Mountain Division could not penetrate the Sexshops in der Region Murmansk defenses at the Rybachy peninsula further, and had gone Sexshops in der Region Murmansk defensive positions at its neck by July. Some of its units were sent south to aid the 3rd Mountain Division. With the additional forces the Germans were able to advance further east against heavy resistance and reached the Litsa Riverwhere they established a bridgehead over the river.
Here the Soviets were able to halt the German advance. An attempt by Dietl's forces to expand the bridgehead towards the Sexshops in der Region Murmansk failed when the Soviets launched a flanking attack by landing further north on the German side threatening the German positions.
Dietl asked for further reinforcements, but the German High Command was unwilling to grant further units, and Dietl received only marginal reinforcements from Norway. While Dietl's units were halted by heavy Soviet resistance, the supply situation for Mountain Corps Norway deteriorated rapidly. Soviet Sexshops in der Region Murmansk British naval forces harassed German supply shipments along the Norwegian coast, weakening the Germans further.
Any attempt to renew the offensive failed, instead the Soviets were able to clear the German bridgehead east of the Litsa River and on 21 September the operation came to a halt. Mountain Corps Norway was now Sexshops in der Region Murmansk to defend the front line and secure the Petsamo area and its nickel-mines, as a renewed offensive was ruled out.
Both sides now dug in at their current positions. For the remainder of the war, the northern front was to remain relatively stable until the Soviet offensive ofwith only small scale ski patrol skirmishes occurring. Parallel to Platinum Fox Polarfuchs started on 1 July. They were faced by three divisions of Sexshops in der Region Murmansk Army, namely the nd Rifle Divisionthe th Rifle Divisionand the 1st Tank Division.
The German units launched a frontal attack against Sallawhile the Finnish 6th Division attempted a massive flanking attack behind the Soviet lines Sexshops in der Region Murmansk south towards Alakurtti and Kayraly Kairala. The initial attack went badly, as the German troops were untrained for Arctic warfare.
The SS division in particular, merely a former police unit, was unsuccessful in dealing with the organized Soviet defense.
After repeated attacks failed, XXXVI Corps combined all its forces and with the help of a flanking attack by the Finnish 6th division the Soviet defenses were finally breached on 6 July.
Salla was taken on 8 July, and the Soviets started a general retreat towards Kayraly to the east. Kayraly was protected by heavy Soviet defense and large natural lakes around the town.
This prevented any further German advance, rendering the situation into a stalemate for the remainder of the month. From there the corps would then advance towards Loukhi and Kemwhere it would cut the Murmansk railway. The initial Finnish advance against its adversary, the 54th Rifle Divisionwas very Sexshops in der Region Murmansk.
III Corps made a crossing of the canal and captured Kestenga on 7 August, while simultaneously reaching the outskirts of Ukhta. The Soviets now moved heavy reinforcements into the area in the form of the 88th Rifle Division. This stalled the Finnish offensive. A large pincer movement by the th Division from the north and the Finnish 6th Division from the south encircled the city, trapping large Soviet formations inside.
It took Alakurtti and reached the Voyta and Verman Rivers where the old Soviet border fortifications were situated. The Soviets had increased their defenses and had moved in additional units Sexshops in der Region Murmansk other locations. Nevertheless, Finnish forces took some ground and encircled an entire Soviet regiment.
Suddenly on 17 November the Finnish command ordered an end to the offensive despite positive feedback from the field commanders that further ground could be taken. The reason for this sudden change in Finnish behavior was Sexshops in der Region Murmansk result of diplomatic pressure by the United States. Prior to the cancellation of the offensive, US diplomats warned Finland that a disruption of US deliveries to the Soviet Union would have serious consequences for Finland. Therefore, Finland became no longer interested in spearheading the offensive.
With the Finnish refusal to be involved in the offensive, Arctic Fox came to an end in November and both Sexshops in der Region Murmansk dug in at their current positions. Operation Silver Fox had not achieved its sophisticated goals.
During the operation the Germans and Finns had taken some ground at both fronts, but overall the operation failed in terms of its strategic intentions, as neither Murmansk nor the Murmansk railway at Kandalaksha were captured.